This article is about open access to research literature. Whilst how to open an essay official open access logo exists, organisations are free to sele
This article is about open access to research literature. Whilst how to open an essay official open access logo exists, organisations are free to select the logo style that best supports their visual language. Other logos are also in use. There are multiple ways authors can provide open access to their work.
This is known as ‘green’ open access. A second way authors can make their work open access is by publishing it in such a way that makes their research output immediately available from the publisher. Pure open access journals do not charge subscription fees, and may have one of a variety of business models. Many, however, do charge an article processing fee.
There are many degrees and kinds of wider and easier access to this literature. By ‘open access’ to this literature, we mean its free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. The Bethesda and Berlin statements add that for a work to be open access, users must be able to “copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship.
Despite these statements emerging in the 2000s, the idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term “open access” was formally coined. The Budapest, Bethesda, and Berlin definitions had corresponded only to libre OA. The momentum was further increased by a growing movement for academic journal publishing reform, and with it gold and libre OA. Electronic publishing created new benefits as compared to paper publishing but beyond that, it contributed to causing problems in traditional publishing models. The open access movement is motivated by the problems of social inequality caused by restricting access to academic research, which favor large and wealthy institutions with the financial means to purchase access to many journals, as well as the economic challenges and perceived unsustainability of academic publishing.
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