The Art of Social Change: Campaigns law and social change essay foot-binding and genital mutilation. Campaigns against foot-binding and genital mutila
The Art of Social Change: Campaigns law and social change essay foot-binding and genital mutilation. Campaigns against foot-binding and genital mutilation show how, and how not, to alter harmful customs.
A woman with bound feet in a hotel in Shanghai, circa 1900. Internet Explorer 9 or earlier. Go to the home page to see the latest top stories. Recent and archival health news about Female Genital Mutilation. The results were hardly what church members hoped for. Large numbers of Kikuyu left the church, and Kenya’s leading anticolonial political organization mounted a vigorous attack on the church’s policies.
Female circumcision became a nationalist issue, and a custom that might have gradually disappeared grew further entrenched. Nearly 40 percent of Kenyan women today are estimated to have undergone some form of it. So if you care about the foreign victims of immemorial, immoral rituals, you will want to proceed carefully and perhaps learn from history. International humanitarian campaigns don’t have to backfire.
It might be useful to look at their notable successes, in fact, and see what swung the balance. More news and information about China. The custom began to die out in the first decade of the 20th century. In most places, it happened quickly. The American political scientist Gerry Mackie, an expert on social norms, gives the example of a large group of families in a rural area south of Beijing, in which 99 percent of women born before 1890 had bound feet, and none of the women born after 1919 had bound feet. The campaign against foot-binding didn’t work immediately. But when it took hold, that thousand-year-old practice essentially vanished in a single generation.
There is much about the common law that is alive today and plays no small part in supporting our lawful liberty. But humans at the end of the twenty, policing and bureaucratic power over ordinary citizens’ daily lives pose special problems for accountability that earlier writers such as Locke or Montesquieu could not have foreseen. The study of social change involves no value, perhaps Wax’s fellow professors at the University of Pennsylvania law school will do better? I therefore invite the reader to make up the deficiency in the correspondent’s case.
It wasn’t that the campaigners had new arguments. The Chinese knew foot-binding produced suffering and debility. Foot-binding was done to young girls, crushing the four smaller toes under the sole and compressing the rear of the anklebone. After months and years the pain diminished, but walking was usually difficult. 4 or 5 years old, innocent and without crime, are caused to suffer limitless pain. And you can’t overstate the force of convention: Chinese families bound their daughters’ feet because that was the normal thing to do. The movement that eventually turned the Chinese around began with Christian missionaries in the 1860s.